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Matrix of Scholars' Views on Historical Jesus and Pauline Authenticity

Klaus Schilling.  Formatted and uploaded by Michael Hoffman with Klaus' permission, July 13, 2005.



1. All Pauline epistles are from the Paul whose social and chronological framework is given by a literal or rational reading of the Apostolic Acts.

2. The Paul of the Acts is the solid base of the Paulina, but got expanded by patristic tradition.

3. Like above, but also heretical schools contributed actively to the letters.

4. The core of the Paulines is non-orthodox, going back to a distinguished Paul of pre-fall Jerusalem. The church later revamped the writings into orthodox shape.

5. The Paulina are completely late pseudoepigraphy and forgery by both heretics and orthodoxy

1. There was a Historical Jesus who is identical with the Christ of Faith

1-1  Luke Timothy Johnson, Gleason Archer, Lee Strobel, Hanegraaf, Falwell, Mel Gibson, Shmuel Boteach, Ratzinger, Graham, Linnemann, Pat Robertson, van Impy, Michael Green (jm), Holding





2. There was an HJ who laid the schemes for the CoF described in the gospels and may be distilled rationally from the same.

2-1  Reimarus, Deschner, Scala, Nietsche

2-2  Grondin, Goodacre, Jeffrey Gibson, Crossan, Mack, Luedemann, Schleiermacher, Renan, Harnack, Schmiedel, Windisch, Volkmar, FC Baur, Morton Smith, Spong, King, Weller, Leon Albert (jm)

2-3  Kuchinsky



3. There was an HJ  vaguely related to the CoF, but it's not possible to clearly see the fire of the HJ through the smoke of the gospels.


3-2  Wells, Bultmann, Dibelius, Schmithals, Holtzmann, Wellhausen, Pfleiderer, Gunkel, Elaine Pagels, Schopenhauer

3-3  Loisy, Guignebert, Goguel, Clabeaux

3-4  Sammer, Willoughby

3-5  van Manen, Loman, Ebbinghaus

4. There was an HJ, but the connection to the gospels is deliberately distorted and constructed.


4-2  Drewermann, Eisler, Rougier

4-3  Turmel, Gys-Devic, Jay Raskin (jm), Ellergaard

4-4  Wautier, Margaret Mead, Helena Blavatskij, Rudolph Steiner, Heindl, van Rijkenborgh, Annie Besant, Alice Bailey, Leadbeater

4-5  Robert Price, Cascioli, Daniel Masse'

5. There was no HJ.


5-2  Earl Doherty, Rod Green (jm)

5-3  Alfaric, Fau, Las Vergnas, Joseph Atwill, Reuchlin

5-4  Georges Ory, Alvin Boyd Kuhn, Timothy Freke, Peter Gandy, Jean Magne, Tom Harpur, Higgins, Drews

5-5  Hermann Detering, GA vdBvE, HPhWE vdBvE, Bolland, Klaus Schilling (jm), Acharya S, Max Rieser, Bruno Bauer, Couchoud, Edwin Johnson, Michael Hoffman (jm)

(jm) means an active member of the JesusMysteries discussion group.

Klaus also wants to categorize:

Hyam Maccobi

Burton Mack

Marcus Borg

Geza Vermes

Jonathan Z. Smith

John M. Allegro

Birger Pearson

Harold Leidner

JM Robinson


Gershom Scholem

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